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Synthesizing Invariants by Solving Solvable Loops
Steven de Oliveira, Saddek Bensalem, Virgile Prevosto
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Abstract: Formal program verification faces two problems. The first problem is related to the necessity of having automated solvers that are powerful enough to decide whether a formula holds for a set of proof obligations as large as possible, whereas the second manifests in the need of finding sufficiently strong invariants to obtain correct proof obligations. This paper focuses on the second problem and describes a new method for the automatic generation of loop invariants that handles polynomial and non deterministic assignments. This technique is based on the eigenvector generation for a given linear transformation and on the polynomial optimization problem, which we implemented on top of the open-source tool Pilat.

Ghosts for Lists: A Critical Module of Contiki Verified in Frama-C
Allan Blanchard, Nikolai Kosmatov, Frédéric Loulergue
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Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) applications are becoming increasingly critical and require rigorous formal verification. In this paper we target Contiki, a widely used open-source OS for IoT, and present a verification case study of one of its most critical modules: that of linked lists. Its API and list representation differ from the classical linked list implementations, and are particularly challenging for deductive verification. The proposed verification technique relies on a parallel view of a list through a companion ghost array. This approach makes it possible to perform most proofs automatically using the Frama-C/WP tool, only a small number of auxiliary lemmas being proved interactively in the Coq proof assistant. We present an elegant segment-based reasoning over the companion array developed for the proof. Finally, we validate the proposed specification by proving a few functions manipulating lists.

Ghosts for Lists: from Axiomatic to Executable Specications
Frederic Loulergue, Allan Blanchard, and Nikolai Kosmatov
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Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) applications are becoming increasingly critical and require formal verification. Our recent work presented formal verification of the linked list module of Contiki, an OS for IoT. It relies on a parallel view of a linked list via a companion ghost array and uses an inductive predicate to link both views. In this work, a few interactively proved lemmas allow for the automatic verification of the list functions specifications, expressed in the acsl specification language and proved with the Frama-C/Wp tool. In a broader verification context, especially as long as the whole system is not yet formally verified, it would be very useful to use runtime verification , in particular, to test client modules that use the list module. It is not possible with the current specifications, which include an inductive predicate and axiomatically defined functions. In this early-idea paper we show how to define a provably equivalent non-inductive predicate and a provably equivalent non-axiomatic function that belong to the executable subset e-acsl of acsl and can be transformed into executable C code. Finally, we propose an extension of Frama-C to handle both axiomatic specifications for deductive verification and executable specifications for runtime verification.

MMFilter: A CHR-Based Solver for Generation of Executions under Weak Memory Models
Allan Blanchard, Nikolai Kosmatov, Frédéric Loulergue
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Abstract: With the wide expansion of multiprocessor architectures, the analysis and reasoning for programs under weak memory models has become an important concern. This work presents MMFilter, an original constraint solver for generating program behaviors respecting a particular memory model. It is implemented in Prolog using CHR (Constraint Handling Rules). The CHR formalism provides a convenient generic solution for specifying memory models. It benefits from the existing optimized implementations of CHR and can be easily extended to new models. We present MMFilter design, illustrate the encoding of memory model constraints in CHR and discuss the benefits and limitations of the proposed technique.

Towards Formal Verification of Contiki: Analysis of the AES–CCM* Modules with Frama-C
A. Peyrard, N. Kosmatov, S. Duquennoy, S. Raza, "RED-IOT 2018 - Workshop on Recent advances in secure management of data and resources in the IoT", February 2018
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Abstract: The number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is rapidly increasing and allows embedded devices today to be massively connected to the Internet. This raises software security questions. This paper demonstrates the usage of formal verification to increase the security of Contiki, a popular open-source operating system for the IoT. We present a case study on deductive verification of encryption-decryption modules of Contiki (namely, AES–CCM*) using Frama-C, a software analysis platform for C code.


Static Analysis and Runtime-Assertion Checking: Contribution to Security Counter-Measures
D. Pariente, J. Signoles, "SSTIC - Symposium sur la sécurité des technologies de l'information et des communications", June 2017
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Abstract: This paper presents a methodology which combines static analysis and runtime assertion checking in order to automatically generate counter-measures, and execute them whenever a flaw in the code which may compromise the security of an application is detected during execution. Static analysis pinpoints alarms that must be converted into runtime checks. Therefore the verifier is able to only monitor the security critical points of the application. This method allows to strengthen a security-critical source code in a cost-effective manner. We implemented it in the Frama-C framework and experimented it on a real use case based on Apache web server. The paper ends with preliminary considerations on potential perspectives for security evaluation and certification.

"ACSL By Example - Towards a Verified C Standard Library"
J. Burghardt, R. Clausecker, J. Gerlach, H. Pohl, for Frama-C Silicon, April 2017
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Abstract: This report provides various examples for the formal specification, implementation, and deductive verification of C programs using the ANSI/ISO-C Specification Language and the Frama-C/WP plug-in of Frama-C (Framework for Modular Analysis of C programs). We have chosen our examples from the C++ standard library whose initial version is still known as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL contains a broad collection of generic algorithms that work not only on C arrays but also on more elaborate container data structures. For the purposes of this document we have selected representative algorithms, and converted their implementation from C++ function templates to C functions that work on arrays of type int. We will continue to extend and refine this report by describing additional STL algorithms and data structures. Thus, step by step, this document will evolve from an ACSL tutorial to a report on a formally specified and deductively verified standard library for ANSI/ISO-C. Moreover, as ACSL is extended to a C++ specification language, our work may be extended to a deductively verified C++ Standard Library.